The way how hard a material is determined under the influence of force is an important information about the mechanical and wear properties.
The Brinell hardness test is conducted at M&S with a hardened steel ball on straight, smooth and scale-free surfaces and is standardized in the material testing according to DIN EN ISO 6506-1. The test is suitable for test objects made up of soft to medium-hard materials (<650HB), such as not hardened steels, cast iron materials and non-ferrous metals. The hardness profile of the material to be tested is calculated using the imprints and the deformations in the surface generated by the steel ball, depending on the material group, the individually applied force and the proper degree of stress.
The Vickers hardness test is performed with a diamond pyramid, which has an angle of 136°. This penetrates into the workpiece, leaving an imprint from where the diagonals can be measured and the hardness value can be recorded using the test load. Required for the test is a straight, smooth, scratch-free and scale-free surface.
This test method is standardized in the material testing according to DIN 6507-1.
This hardness test is universally applicable and is used to measure various materials and work-pieces. Layers, thin sheets, soft to hardened materials or even individual structural components can be tested.
The Rockwell hardness test is performed using two different test pieces. The diamond cone and the carbide ball. These pieces have similar properties and usage properties like the related specimens from Vickers and Brinell, but a different shape. A flat surface is necessary for testing. The test is performed with a test force (for example, scale residues which penetrate before the test begins), afterwards the testing is performed with an additional force. The hardness is determined from the amount of the remaining deformation that results from preliminary and additional force.
This test method is standardized in the material testing according to DIN EN ISO 6508-1.
The diamond cone at HRC test is similar to Vickers suitable for testing of hardened, high-strength materials and has an angle of 120°. The carbide ball is similar to Brinell and suitable for testing of soft steel and non-ferrous metals.